current position:Home>Toyota and Honda are eager to transform, and the advantages of closed supply chain become cumbersome

Toyota and Honda are eager to transform, and the advantages of closed supply chain become cumbersome

2021-08-24 17:31:28 Netease automotive industry

In the global automotive industry , Japanese car companies are famous for their close cooperation with suppliers . But today , In electrification 、 Networking 、 Intelligent 、 Shared “ New four modernizations ” In the wave of innovation , The traditional manufacturer relationship in Japan's auto industry has become shaky .

Among them Honda The most significant change in attitude . Honda has been independent in foreign cooperation for a long time , Until the last two years . In recent days, , Just took office at Honda CEO Soon, Mibu Minhong publicly shouted that , In order to promote the early profitability of electric products , Honda is willing to form an alliance with other car companies .

thus , The Japanese automobile industry has formed “ Toyota - Mazda - suzuki - subaru union ”、“ Renault - nissan - Mitsubishi Alliance ”, And the new alliance Honda is looking for .

The vertical and horizontal cooperation between Japanese car enterprises , Behind it is huge policy pressure .2020 year 12 month , Issued by the Ministry of economy, industry and trade of Japan 《 Green growth strategy 》, Mention the latest arrival 2035 year , Realization 100% Electrification of new passenger cars (EV+PHEV).“ New four modernizations ” Not only forced Japanese car companies to form a horizontal alliance , It is also subverting the vertical alliance between Japanese auto enterprises and local parts enterprises . In the past two years , Toyota 、 Nissan has jumped out of the traditional local supplier system , Turn to the European, American and Chinese markets for Software 、 Power battery 、 Semiconductor supplier .

meanwhile , The traditional parts industry shrank , Some Japanese traditional parts enterprises have increased business pressure . Honda 、 Nissan began to spin off its closely tied but underperforming parts companies , To reduce the burden of their own transformation .

Horizontal alliances occur frequently

In the past five years , Alliances between Japanese car companies have sprung up . Although the specific forms are different , But the establishment of these alliances has a similar background —— Emission regulations are becoming increasingly stringent ,“ New four modernizations ” The pressure of transformation is increasing .

2016 year 10 month , Nissan in 3370 Billion yen ( close 22.9 Billion dollars ) Bought Mitsubishi at a price of 34% Shares of , And get a controlling stake in Mitsubishi . thus , Renault - Nissan alliance expands to Renault - nissan - Mitsubishi Alliance .

An important opportunity for Nissan to acquire Mitsubishi shares is Mitsubishi “ Fuel consumption valve ” The outbreak of the scandal .2016 year , Facing the investigation of the Japanese government , Mitsubishi admitted that it had falsified the fuel economy test data of some models . Affected by this , Mitsubishi's auto production and sales in Japan fell sharply that year .

2017 year 8 month , Toyota and Mazda announced an alliance , Toyota through the acquisition of Mazda's third-party private placement of new shares , Get a stake in Mazda , meanwhile , Toyota will also sell shares to Mazda , Both parties hold the same amount of shares of the other party .

About why we should form an alliance , Toyota and Mazda explained in an official statement ,“ With environmental protection 、 Safety regulations are becoming stricter all over the world , The accelerated rise of new types of cars and the diversification of travel modes , The automotive industry has ushered in a period of great change , In this situation , Toyota and Mazda need to strengthen their partnership , Face and respond to the period of change together ”.

2019 year 8 month , Toyota and Suzuki issued a joint announcement , Formally build a capital alliance . according to the agreement , Toyota will spend 960 Billion yen to acquire Suzuki 4.94% equity , And Suzuki will 480 The price of 100 million yen , Buy Toyota 0.2% equity .

2019 year 9 month , Subaru also announced , Reach a business cooperation alliance agreement with Toyota , The agreement includes 2020 year 2 In June, Toyota completed its control of Subaru .

Toyota and Suzuki 、 Subaru's alliances all point in the direction of electrification .2019 year , Toyota has released an electrification strategy , At the end of the strategy “ Vehicle cooperation ” In the plate , Toyota mentioned that it would work with Suzuki 、 Subaru cooperates in the development of small and medium-sized and large electrified vehicles respectively .

After this round of horizontal alliance , Japan's auto industry has formed three camps , First, the camp led by Toyota , Including Mazda 、 suzuki 、 Subaru and the big hair that has long been under Toyota's revenue 、 Hino ; Second, Renault - nissan - Mitsubishi Alliance ; Third, the independent Honda .

2019 year , When he was president of Honda, long Hong BA Xiang also said publicly , Honda has no intention of Alliance , because “ Once the alliance is formed, the other side will be in our management ‘ backseat driver ’”.

However , from 2020 Year begins , Honda's attitude on alliance appears 180 Turn around .2020 year 4 month , Honda and GM have reached a cooperation , The parties will be based on the general agreement Ultium Battery and highly flexible global electric vehicle platform , Jointly develop two new Honda pure electric models .

2020 year 9 month , Honda and GM signed a memorandum of understanding , Both parties intend to form an automobile business alliance , Buying 、 Research and development 、 Car networking 、 Cooperation in vehicle platform and powertrain . however , The form of alliance is relatively limited , The scope is limited to North America , And does not involve cross shareholding .

recently , Just took office at Honda global CEO Not long after, mihiro said publicly :“ If through an alliance , Honda can achieve the planned goal as soon as possible , Then we are willing to form a new electrification Alliance .”

In the mouth of Mitsuhiro “ Planning goals ” Published this year 4 month , At that time, Mitsuhiro was taking office at Honda CEO At the media conference , Announced an ambitious electrification plan , The goal is to 2030 year , In major global markets ,EV( Blade Electric Vehicles ) and FCV( Fuel cell cars ) Sales account for... Of Honda's sales 40%, To 2035 Annual share 80%, To 2040 In, it reached 100%.

Supplier constraints

In the face of electrification 、 The impact of intelligence , While establishing horizontal alliance, Japanese car enterprises , The traditional vertical alliance with parts enterprises has become a restrictive factor in the process of transformation .

For a long time , With TOYOTA 、 The supply chain system of Japanese automobile enterprises represented by Honda is extremely closed . Car companies through cross shareholding 、 Investment holding 、 Merger and reorganization , Deeply integrate a large number of Japanese local parts enterprises into their own enterprises “ Family members ”, The two sides thus form a vertical community of interests .

Take Toyota for example , Disclosure of information , Toyota depends on the importance of the parts produced by the supplier , Divide it into 3 class , And set up 2 Tier 1 supplier organization —— Xiefeng club and Rongfeng Club , Among them, the members of Xiefeng association are the core component suppliers , Toyota generally holds its super 30% shares , The members of Rongfeng association are suppliers of feature parts , Toyota generally holds its 10% Left and right shares .

at present , Well known parts suppliers controlled or participated by Toyota include Aisin gearbox 、 Electric installation 、 Toyota textile 、 Jetegot 、 Aichi steel, etc . among , Aisin gearbox is the largest in the world AT Transmission supplier , Denso is one of the world's largest suppliers of automotive electrical accessories , Jetteggert is the world's top bearing 、 Machine tool supplier .

however , The binding relationship with local parts enterprises has also become a potential problem in the transformation of Japanese auto enterprises “ Burden ”. There is a view that , The supply chain model of Japanese auto enterprises is like a ship connected by iron rings , Although steady , But there are too many stakeholders , The action is slower than that of European and American car companies , It is not conducive to the reform and transformation of enterprises .

After the car is completely electrified , The engine and transmission are no longer needed . Therefore, the production of engines 、 Transmission parts enterprises will face the test of survival , meanwhile , Production and engine 、 Manufacturer of exhaust system related to gearbox 、 Parts and components enterprises of power transmission system , It will no longer be needed by the market .

An Guangyong, an expert of the credit management committee of the all union M & A Association, said , The electric transformation of European and American car enterprises only needs to calm the internal opposition , Basically do not consider the future of parts suppliers , Japanese auto enterprises deeply bound with local parts enterprises , At the same time, we need to consider the opinions from within the enterprise and parts suppliers .

2020 year 12 month , Toyota leader Akio Toyoda spoke publicly for parts enterprises at a press conference . He said , If Japan forced steering requires fewer parts 、 Easier to make all electric vehicles , This could cause millions of people to lose their jobs , And destroy the entire ecosystem of auto parts suppliers .

From closed to open

in fact , The vertical alliance between Japanese auto enterprises and local parts enterprises has become loose , Toyota 、 Honda 、 Nissan and other auto companies are reshaping their supply chain system to varying degrees .

In electric vehicles ,2019 year 6 month , Toyota announced that it will start from Ningde era 、 BYD purchases batteries , This is the first time that the company purchases key core parts from Chinese suppliers .

On autopilot , This year, 5 month , Toyota announced that it will be owned by Intel subsidiary Mobileye European and American enterprises such as ZF develop advanced driving assistance systems for them , The system will be deployed on multiple Toyota car platforms in the next few years .

This year, 1 month , There have been reports , According to Nissan's new strategy , The parts purchased by the company in China are no longer limited to bumpers 、 Category of seats and lamps , The future will include more complex components such as sensors and power inverters . for example , nissan e-Power The battery of the model will be developed in China , And supplied by Chinese battery manufacturer Xinwangda .

Honda is also “ Three electric ” On the one hand, we will vigorously strengthen cooperation with suppliers in the market place .2020 year 7 month , Honda signed a strategic cooperation agreement with Chinese enterprise Ningde times , Cooperation covers the joint development of power batteries 、 Stable supply and other fields . In the field of electric motor control , The main supplier of Honda's independently developed models is Hefei Juyi power, a Chinese enterprise .

In addition to re combing the supply chain , Japanese auto companies also stripped off their parts assets through equity transfer and other means , So as to raise more funds and lay out new businesses .

2016 year , Nissan will produce air conditioners 、 Kangnaike, a component enterprise of compressor and radiator 41% Sale of shares to an American company KKR, It plans to use the funds obtained from this exchange to support its R & D of electric vehicles and artificial intelligence .

Interestingly , After the vertical binding relationship with the main engine factory is loose , Many Japanese parts enterprises are also seeking horizontal restructuring with their peers . In the eyes of the industry , This is quite similar to the alliance between Japanese car companies .

2018 year 12 month , Electric installation 、 Jetegot 、 EDX and Aisin Jingji announced the joint venture of automatic driving J-QuADDYNAMICS, The main business of the joint venture is to develop software and provide engineering services , Provide automatic driving integrated vehicle control system for automobile manufacturers all over the world .

2019 year 4 month , Aisin precision machinery and electric equipment have jointly established a new company BluENexus, The main business of the new company is to develop and sell drive modules for electric vehicles .

2019 year 11 month , Honda and Hitachi announced , Will gather the flags of both sides 4 A new company was formed from a parts enterprise , The new company will become the third largest parts manufacturer in Japan . The new company absorbed Honda's 3 companies , Including Showa 、 Jingbin electric and Rixin industries , But Honda only holds 33% Shares of .

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