current position:Home>Beijing, a group of "travelers", will start a journey of tens of thousands of kilometers again

Beijing, a group of "travelers", will start a journey of tens of thousands of kilometers again

2021-08-26 00:23:55 Beijing daily client

There is such a bird , They almost never land in their life , Always flying . They disappear from Beijing at about the same time every year , And always return to Beijing in the coming year . Together with them, mankind has witnessed the prosperity and changes of Beijing , Rebirth and development .“ Beijing ” The name of the city is also engraved in their names .

Beijing swift —— Mysterious pilot , Why leave Beijing , Always come back ?

“ Mysterious traveler ”

This year, 7 month 1 Japan , Celebrating the founding of the Communist Party of China 100 The annual meeting was held in Tiananmen Square . Swallows fluttered in the square , Some are so low that people will bump when they stand up from their seats . Swallows fly around the Tiananmen Gate Tower , A beautiful scene of ecological harmony . And this scene also attracted more people's attention to the Beijing Swift .

7 month 1 In the morning , Sunrise and birds in Tiananmen Square . Liu Ping taken

8 month , The observation and counting activity of Beijing swift scientific investigation project is over , At the end of summer , Swift will disappear from Beijing on time . Through the ring , The researchers put a locator on the Beijing swift , After recycling, analyze the data and find , Beijing swift is probably in 7 After leaving Beijing at the end of the month , Will make an ultra long distance flight , Across the Arabian Peninsula , Finally arrived in Southwest Africa , In Namibia 、 Botswana and South Africa “ Take a rest ” about 3 Months , In the second year 2 The moon set off again , Fly back to their home in Beijing .

Data figure The swift perches in the pavilion scenic area of the summer palace . Wu dy   taken

Zhao Xinru, an expert in ornithology at Beijing Normal University, said , For Beijing Swift , This migration is an Epic Flight :“2015 Recycled in 13 only , I found that Beijing swift passed by from Beijing 115 God , Keep moving , To the south of Africa . If you simply connect this distance , Must have 15000~16000 km . A bird that is very good at flying , Great Aviator , It's not easy. .”

No matter how many times you fly away , Coming year , Beijing swift will definitely return to Beijing , It seems that there is “ Beijing ”, Then we have an agreement with this city .

“ A footless bird ” Where you stand

1870 year , Robert, a famous British naturalist · Swanhoe collected a swift specimen in Beijing , I'm going to call it Apus apus pekinensis( Latin scientific name ), It means common swift Beijing subspecies , Beijing swift gets its name from this .“Apus apus”, Meaning for “ No feet 、 No feet ”.

“ Compared with domestic swallows that can peck on the ground , Beijing swift belongs to the sky .” Zhang Zhengwang, who is also the vice president of the Chinese society of ornithology, introduced , Beijing swifts spend most of their life in the air . It has four toes forward , Except spawning 、 Hatch in the nest , They work day and night , Keep flying , Predation in flight 、 Drink lots of water 、 mating .

This special structure , As a result, Beijing swift cannot grasp branches to perch or stand and walk on the ground , It can only be attached to the gap of bare rock and the edge of cave , When you dive down from a high place, you can flap your wings to take off .“ It is this unique limb structure and way of life , Let swift choose Beijing in the process of long-term evolution .”

Thanks to the characteristics of Chinese traditional architecture , Beams in a large number of ancient buildings in Beijing 、 Purlin 、 Rafters crisscross to form one man-made cave after another , Not only safer than bare rock and caves in the wild 、 comfortable , And it is conducive to the reproduction of swift , bring “ Yankou ” A lot of growth .

therefore , The common swifts that adapt to and live in the huge ancient buildings in Beijing have slowly evolved into Beijing swifts , This is a new species created by human beings for their own survival . Researchers have documented , Early last century , The population of swift in Beijing has reached its peak , about 5 Ten thousand only . 

  There is a view that , With the development of the city , There are fewer ancient buildings , So there will be fewer swift in Beijing .2017 year 7 month , Beijing Wildlife rescue center and Beijing Xuanwu Youth Science and Technology Museum jointly launched the Beijing swift scientific investigation activity , The survey shows that at that time, Beijing 7 At the beginning of the month, the number of swift is about 4000 only .

except “ housing ”, Zhao Xinru pointed out , Beijing Swift has to eat better .“ We used to judge , The reason for the decrease in the number in previous years is not only the lack of ancient buildings , There may also be too few insects over Beijing . How to increase ? Use less pesticides in garden and green space , Restore more wetlands .”

They are also adapting to urban changes

The Swift's mouth is wide , A swift can prey on nearly ten thousand insects every day , It plays an important role in maintaining ecological balance . As a first-class protected wildlife in Beijing , Their existence is also of great significance to maintain the integrity of biodiversity . thankfully , In recent years , These intelligent and tenacious creatures , Under people's attention and protection , It's back to life .

Estimation of swift investigation project of Beijing Wildlife Rescue Center in recent two years , The number of swifts in the Fourth Ring Road of Beijing is expected to be 5000 Only about , After breeding, it may exceed 1 Ten thousand only .

Except for ancient buildings , Beijing Swift has also been found to settle down in some modern architectural structures , For example, the holes in the overpass 、 In the gap . obviously , Beijing swift still chose the prosperous city of Beijing . 

Data figure

“ There are fewer ancient buildings , They will find new places .” Zhao Xinru thinks , Modern urban development has a certain impact on Swift , But it doesn't exclude them , In a sense , Beijing swift in order to reproduce , In adapting to the changes of the city . 

“ I can't count how many swifts ” Volunteers provide pictures  

2020 year 5 month , Beijing Tiantan Qinian Temple ,“ Beijing swift ” Fly freely in the blue sky .

When human evolution can create one or more organisms and contribute to biodiversity , Such biodiversity should be maintained , Moreover, Beijing swift not only produces the living cultural and cultural landscape on the central axis of Beijing , what's more , The Beijing swift, which evolved with human beings, has become a biosphere for symbiosis and common prosperity with human beings .

China has a 1400 Many kinds of birds , Beijing swift is the one that flies into people's life . It seems to have no feet , Never landed , Always go and come again , Come and go , The city of Beijing is their home .

source The official account of Beijing evening news

Based on previous reports 、 Voice of China, CCTV 、 Xinhua client

Supervise the manufacture of : tension

edit : Zhang Yang

The process editor Wu yue

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