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How did automobile production increase production before Ford introduced assembly line production?

2021-08-26 04:17:44 Oriental Information automobile

Most people think that , The introduction of assembly line has played an absolute role in the mass production of cars . Of course , The introduction of assembly line makes it possible to move the vehicles being assembled , To move work targets instead of workers , This increases production , But this is not the core concept of mass production method . Henry Ford, the founder of Ford Motor Company, was born in 1908 Developed in T Model , And in 1910 Mass production of cars began in , But assembly line production is 1913 Launched later in , Therefore, assembly line is not the key to mass production . So before Ford introduced assembly line production , How car production increases production ?

Figure note : The first car born in the United States ,1899 Ozmobil Curved Dash At Ford T Before the model car , The first mass-produced car in American history was 1899 Ozmobil in Curved Dash, But this model has only made a few , And it is manufactured in the way of mass production through systematic methods . Ford changed the structure and shape of vehicles from manual manufacturing to mass production , Make it easier to work and reduce processes . for instance , He assembled the cylinder block of the engine from four parts of other manufacturers at that time , Become a part structure , Unify and shorten assembly time . And in order to reduce the time lost when workers directly transport parts for assembly , A method is designed , Place the parts where the workers are , So that workers can focus on assembling . And the vehicle being assembled is also changed to move to the position of each worker , This is a conveyor belt . Ford also simplified every workflow , Let each worker do only one simple task . therefore , In the traditional production process , Highly skilled workers are needed to make vehicles . In Ford's production method , Unskilled workers can also produce cars , Even if the worker is replaced by another person , It will not cause any interference to production .

Figure note : ford T cars 1909 Early models in 1915 When the production of Fu special agent factory reached its peak in , The number of workers exceeds 7,000 people , Most of them are new immigrants or farmers in Detroit . It is said that many of them immigrated to the United States from abroad . Not only shorten the work content , And shorten the task cycle of each process , So in Ford's mass production system ,1913 The annual working time for each worker to produce a car is 2 branch 18 second . Everyone with manual methods 8 Compared with half an hour , It's a big change . Behind Ford's ability to achieve mass production with such a big gap , Ford has only one product portfolio T Model .T The model has only one body color , black , no choice , So everyone built the same car . Ford unified the body color into black , It can not only prevent subtle color difference between parts painted by different manufacturers , And because black has higher radiant heat and dries faster than other colors , Therefore, the production time can be shortened .

Figure note : ford T cars ,1914 year Another person indispensable to the mass production system of the American automobile industry is Alfred Jr ·P· Sloan (Alfred P. Sloan Jr.). As MIT (MIT) An electrical engineer in , While running a bearing manufacturing company , In General Motors CEO William · Clabo · durant (William Crapo Durant,1861-1947) Join GM at the suggestion of , He is a person who contributes to mass production by sharing parts between models and managing innovation .

Figure note : ford T cars ,1921 year Later Ford built its own factory in mass production , But failed to realize the diversification of design or products , Sloan further systematized it , In order to realize the diversification of design and products . thereafter , All American carmakers operate within the framework of mass production ,1955 year , The domestic market in North America has reached the scale for the first time 700 Thousands of cars , Ford, the three largest American car makers 、 GM and Chrysler have become American auto giants , It is said that 3 Companies' 6 This model occupies 95% Market share . You bet , The mass production mode of American carmakers has affected the world .

source : Zheng Yi

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