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Why does the US government have trouble with China? What on earth do you think?

2021-08-26 23:11:45 Beijing daily client

The old way of thinking and feelings are divorced from the dominant trend of historical progress , Lagging behind scientific and technological progress and practical enlightenment ——

Several philosophical problems in today's era

We live in an era of violent turbulence and change , High technology and the Internet have accelerated this change . However , The old way of thinking and feelings have not yet quit , It has been divorced from the dominant trend of historical progress , Enlightenment from lagging behind scientific and technological progress and practice . In the era of globalization and the construction of a community of human destiny , There is an urgent need to go beyond the old knowledge structure 、 Mode of thinking and mentality , This requires philosophical analysis and thinking .

The awakening of multi subject consciousness

In bipolar thinking , Although we can also see that the national subjects in various countries and regions in the world are diverse , In a country's society, we can also see that the specific subjects of reality are diverse , But there is always a preconceived belief tangled there : In pluralism , There must be right and wrong 、 The difference between advanced and backward , And they are incompatible . therefore , Adhering to the truth is to let the right outweigh the wrong ,“ advanced ” guide “ backward ”…… This kind of thinking is used in the problem of knowledge and truth , Yes, of course , It is also a reasonable universal principle in traditional ideas . But people often ignore the difference between truth and value , Mistakenly treat the problem of value as a problem of truth , That will easily lead to the backwardness of values and mode of thinking , From the reality , Even return to the confrontational thinking of black and white .

In value 、 On the issue of values and ideology , think “ Correct ” All are “ This is the only one , No branch ” The thinking of , From the kind of “ Monistic subjectivism ”, Not from the perspective of equality “ Multiple subjects ” consciousness . Egocentrists often do not recognize that others are also independent value subjects , Do not understand the relationship between the respective rights and responsibilities of different subjects , It's not either 、 Not compatible with each other 、 Can only replace each other . When you encounter the problem of value judgment and value choice , This kind of thinking is not to judge the behavior of multiple subjects by their respective rights and responsibilities , And always look for one, no matter what the subject is , Or for any subject , All unique “ correct ”、 Equal “ important ”、 Uniform “ should ” The answer . Because of that , This kind of thinking is more and more divorced from reality , More and more can't solve the problem , Can't keep up with the situation . In real life, there are many problems that can and are not difficult to solve , The reason why it becomes more and more difficult to solve , A fundamental reason , Is that people don't understand 、 admit 、 Respect 、 Clarify the rights and responsibilities of multiple subjects , Unable to do the necessary “ harmony but not sameness ”.

“ After the truth ” The Apocalypse of

It was found that , With the emergence of subject diversity , In public opinion “ The truth ” Information is also diversified , Exclaim “ The post truth era ” arrival . actually ,“ After the truth ” The essence of , It means value 、 The prominence of subjectivity . therefore , Learn to think about values 、 Subjective thinking into our way of thinking and thinking habits , To keep up with the times .

face “ After the truth ” The phenomenon , People are often concerned about how to grasp the truth ?“ The truth ” It doesn't matter ? Some people think that , Any description of the truth , All have the cognitive limitations of the descriptor , Also disturbed by the value orientation of the descriptor , There is truth behind the truth , Behind the truth is the truth …… You'll never find out . So you can not tell the truth , Only talk about attitude and emotional expression , Say whatever you want …… This is the helplessness and degeneration of human reason .

In fact, in a sense ,“ The truth ” The essence of is a bit like information . Information theory tells us : The mass and energy emitted by the source , It is transmitted to the sink through the channel , Help the sink eliminate uncertainty , Talent “ Information ”; If the uncertainty increases , It's called “ The noise ”. At least , What people expect “ The truth ”, It also means that it can relieve people of uncertainty , Build something sure . so “ The post truth era ” My view of truth , And what the law says “ The facts ” and “ evidence ” Ideas have more in common . Grasp the truth , To a great extent, it depends on the position and consciousness of the subject . The main station needs to reach a certain height , Don't go too far , It can't be too low . Only too low , To reach full height , Illuminate key details with a big picture view , Find a reliable “ The truth ”.

You might as well refer to a small virtual case : A multinational shoemaking company sent two people to do market research somewhere in Africa . When the first man went, he reported , There is no hope , People here don't wear shoes at all ! The second man reported , There is great hope , People here haven't put on their shoes yet ! These two reports , It can be said that they all belong to “ The age of truth ” Reaction . Because what they see is real and real . The two conclusions are completely opposite , Because their value judgments are different . So in “ The post truth era ” What do you think? ? It should be to combine the existence of the object with your value orientation . For example, go to Africa today to investigate , Don't just see a lot of people without shoes , And see if anyone is wearing shoes ? Especially the upper class there , Are there many people wearing shoes ? that , People who don't wear shoes put on shoes , What are the reasons and conditions ? I got it , Can provide practical and effective suggestions for opening up the market , Not as desperate as the first investigator , It's not as blindly optimistic as the second investigator . Only in this way can we master what we need 、 complete “ The truth ”.

All in all ,“ After the truth ” No “ No truth ”, It requires to enhance the consciousness of the subject to grasp the truth . Grasping the truth cannot completely eliminate subjective orientation , But we should keep reflection and self-consciousness on the subjective orientation , Focus on understanding the complete facts of objectiveness , Find out from “ Actually ” Lead to “ sollen ” Conditions and paths . such , Maybe it is “ The post truth era ” The required reasonable 、 positive 、 Constructive understanding and attitude .

The end of value arbitrariness and the community of human destiny

Start with the trade war , People focus on one problem : Why is the US government so hard on China ? What trump said is the most unreasonable 、 The words that offend the Chinese most , Is to put China 14 Hundred million people have struggled 40 Achievements in , Use one “ steal ” The word is negative . The idea that , Obviously, it is not in line with China's reality , Nor does it conform to what the United States itself preaches “ Universal values ” concept , But it can get the support and response of many people in the United States . What exactly do they think ? From the history of the United States , This is a long-standing “ American core values ” A concrete implementation of .

What are the core values ? Check the documents to know , In the original authoritative expression of the American spirit , Has established a belief : The United States is the best nation in the world , The United States wants to lead the world , Guide humans . This position must not be shaken 、 Violated . You see :

1776 year 1 Thomas, published in June · Penn's 《 common sense 》 In the said :“ We have the ability to make the world start over , The birth of a new world is in your hands and mine .” It builds a kind of self-confidence for Americans , Not only think you are the best , And think that their own set should be popular all over the world ;

Same year 8 Signed in January 《 Declaration of independence 》 It also mentions ,“ Americans have a duty to promote these beliefs to the world ”;

Lincoln once described America as “ The earth finally 、 The best hope ”.

…… Every subsequent president's inaugural address , Don't forget to emphasize the American “ special ” and “ great ”.

From a philosophical point of view , Americans think they are great , Is the best , This is not wrong . American history also has such confident capital . But from this “ Just me ”“ Follow me and you will be prosperous , He who goes against me dies ” Inference , Is trapped in “ Value dogmatism ” Misunderstanding . As an arbitrary thinking in Philosophy , Value dogmatism is not new . Since the ancient times , Value dogmatism is consciously maintained and spread by most religious beliefs and mainstream ideology , It has accumulated a profound social foundation and strong cultural influence , Become a kind of ‘ Universal ’ Type 、 The dominant mode of value thinking . So it becomes “ Jungle generation ” The ideological and cultural roots of many conflicts and disasters in the world . The core value of the United States mentioned above , That is, the most distinctive 、 Even some extreme examples .

Go beyond the limitations of value dogmatism , It's not easy . Not only the consciousness of value subjectivity , And we should recognize the equal rights and responsibilities among multiple subjects . This great change in ideas , constitute “ A great change that hasn't happened in a hundred years ” A spiritual feature of , Of course, it also inevitably faces the obstacles of various traditional ideas and their way of thinking . How to treat “ Building a community of shared future for mankind ” problem , It's a focus , Very representative .

Someone asked : China advocates building a community with a shared future for mankind , Does that community have to have a “ The eldest brother ” Well ? Does China want to succeed the United States as the world leader ? Can the United States tolerate ? Actually ,“ There must be a boss ”, It belongs to “ Jungle generation ” The habit of thinking . A community like the underworld , Of course, there must be “ The eldest brother ” Of . But what we seek is a completely different community of human destiny , That is, a pluralistic equality 、“ Garden of flowers ” An ecological system of symbiosis and common prosperity . Who has ever seen a hundred flowers garden must have “ Eldest flower ”“ Old tree ” Well ? One does not need to have “ The eldest brother ” That is, the overlord's community of human destiny , Indeed, it has never appeared in history , But modern humans have realized 、 Calling 、 Strive for a reasonable state . Many people still can't understand and imagine such a community , Of course, some people are not willing to build such a community at all . Therefore, public opinion in the world is very chaotic . Some people in the West stay in “ Thucydides trap ” even to the extent that “ On the yellow peril ” In , Spread “ China threat ” On , Provoke the battle for hegemony , It's not hard to imagine ; And some Chinese , Then take the opportunity to advocate “ The king rules the world ” And so on , It's actually singing the same tune on the other hand , Help the devil , It's a little strange .

that , Building a community with a shared future for mankind and revitalizing the Chinese nation , What is the relationship ? General secretary Xi Jinping said three key words , It's very accurate , It's very important :

The first key word is “ No absence ”. In the process of new globalization and building a community with a shared future for mankind , China will be present , No longer absent , And don't allow others to push us out .

The second is “ Have a bear ”. China has a large number of people 、 Big country , First, do your own thing well , Is the first responsibility ; meanwhile , Contribute to mankind as much as possible , It is also the responsibility that should be undertaken .

The third is “ Don't fight for hegemony ”. This is even more from Mao Zedong 、 Deng Xiaoping goes to Xi Jinping , The unswerving and consistent position of the Chinese communists that have been clarified .

These three words , It must be treated as a unified whole , Use a new way of thinking to understand . If you still stay at home like in the past “ Based on class struggle ”, foreign “ Centered on the cold war ” State of mind , Certainly not . Some propaganda at home and abroad , Encourage China and the United States to compete for hegemony every day , It's nothing more than provoking right and wrong 、 fan the flames , If it wasn't for ulterior motives , It must be closing your eyes and listening 、 Don't use your brain .

The rights and responsibilities of pluralistic subjects and democracy and rule of law

that , Between multiple subjects and multiple values , How to achieve unity and harmony ? On domestic and national governance issues , Is to rely on democracy and the rule of law . There are multiple subject rights and responsibilities , And can't replace each other , Only democracy and the rule of law , Can alleviate the value conflict , Create a good social ecology and public opinion atmosphere .

Let's focus on : Between the rule of law and the thought of illegal rule , The fundamental difference in subject positioning :

In the thought of illegal governance , There is one “ Quasi deified monistic subject ”. That is, the subject of the rule of law , As a universal 、 Represent all people like God 、 The only subject above all people . He must know everything 、 The universal 、 All out 、 Full effect . Imagine that this subject operates and operates there , Law and reality all legislators and judicial personnel , It's just its tools .

In the thinking of rule of law , It's identification “ Multiple realistic subjects with rights and responsibilities in place ”. That is to admit that the subject of reality is pluralistic , And the boundaries and connections between pluralism , Are tied to the social bond of rights and responsibilities . therefore , Ensure that rights and responsibilities are unified and in place , It is the essence and soul of the rule of law .

The characteristics of rule of law and illegal rule of law , It can be compared with the performance in a typical situation , When there is a dispute or even a lawsuit in the society , Then two kinds of thinking will be treated like this :

The thought of illegal governance , In fact, it is a kind of thinking of rule of man and moralism . The thinker naturally acts as the referee , So I care about who is right and who is wrong , I have no doubt about my “ Judge the subject ” The origin and boundary of rights and responsibilities , Even ask others to stand in line with their own opinions . It can be seen that the characteristics of illegal governance thinking , Anyone can claim to represent “ justice ”.

And the rule of law thinking , First of all, make it clear : Who has the right and responsibility to judge right and wrong ? This is the positioning of the subject of power and responsibility . For example, in a lawsuit , It is the judge who has the final say ; And the task of the court , It's also important to check who's 、 What kind of legitimate rights and responsibilities are violated , What are the consequences , wait , And everything must have objective evidence . Legal thinking attaches great importance to procedural justice , Because the procedure itself often faces the legitimate rights and responsibilities of the parties . Experience proves that , If procedural justice is denied , Don't follow the procedure , Then the ultimate damage , It must be justice itself .

( The author is a lifelong professor of China University of political science and law )

source   Beijing daily  |  author Li-te-Schun

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The process editor Liu Weili

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