current position：Home>Why does the US government have trouble with China? What on earth do you think?
Why does the US government have trouble with China? What on earth do you think?
2021-08-26 23:11:45 【Beijing daily client】
The old way of thinking and feelings are divorced from the dominant trend of historical progress , Lagging behind scientific and technological progress and practical enlightenment ——
Several philosophical problems in today's era
We live in an era of violent turbulence and change , High technology and the Internet have accelerated this change . However , The old way of thinking and feelings have not yet quit , It has been divorced from the dominant trend of historical progress , Enlightenment from lagging behind scientific and technological progress and practice . In the era of globalization and the construction of a community of human destiny , There is an urgent need to go beyond the old knowledge structure 、 Mode of thinking and mentality , This requires philosophical analysis and thinking .
The awakening of multi subject consciousness
In bipolar thinking , Although we can also see that the national subjects in various countries and regions in the world are diverse , In a country's society, we can also see that the specific subjects of reality are diverse , But there is always a preconceived belief tangled there ： In pluralism , There must be right and wrong 、 The difference between advanced and backward , And they are incompatible . therefore , Adhering to the truth is to let the right outweigh the wrong ,“ advanced ” guide “ backward ”…… This kind of thinking is used in the problem of knowledge and truth , Yes, of course , It is also a reasonable universal principle in traditional ideas . But people often ignore the difference between truth and value , Mistakenly treat the problem of value as a problem of truth , That will easily lead to the backwardness of values and mode of thinking , From the reality , Even return to the confrontational thinking of black and white .
In value 、 On the issue of values and ideology , think “ Correct ” All are “ This is the only one , No branch ” The thinking of , From the kind of “ Monistic subjectivism ”, Not from the perspective of equality “ Multiple subjects ” consciousness . Egocentrists often do not recognize that others are also independent value subjects , Do not understand the relationship between the respective rights and responsibilities of different subjects , It's not either 、 Not compatible with each other 、 Can only replace each other . When you encounter the problem of value judgment and value choice , This kind of thinking is not to judge the behavior of multiple subjects by their respective rights and responsibilities , And always look for one, no matter what the subject is , Or for any subject , All unique “ correct ”、 Equal “ important ”、 Uniform “ should ” The answer . Because of that , This kind of thinking is more and more divorced from reality , More and more can't solve the problem , Can't keep up with the situation . In real life, there are many problems that can and are not difficult to solve , The reason why it becomes more and more difficult to solve , A fundamental reason , Is that people don't understand 、 admit 、 Respect 、 Clarify the rights and responsibilities of multiple subjects , Unable to do the necessary “ harmony but not sameness ”.
“ After the truth ” The Apocalypse of
It was found that , With the emergence of subject diversity , In public opinion “ The truth ” Information is also diversified , Exclaim “ The post truth era ” arrival . actually ,“ After the truth ” The essence of , It means value 、 The prominence of subjectivity . therefore , Learn to think about values 、 Subjective thinking into our way of thinking and thinking habits , To keep up with the times .
face “ After the truth ” The phenomenon , People are often concerned about how to grasp the truth ？“ The truth ” It doesn't matter ？ Some people think that , Any description of the truth , All have the cognitive limitations of the descriptor , Also disturbed by the value orientation of the descriptor , There is truth behind the truth , Behind the truth is the truth …… You'll never find out . So you can not tell the truth , Only talk about attitude and emotional expression , Say whatever you want …… This is the helplessness and degeneration of human reason .
In fact, in a sense ,“ The truth ” The essence of is a bit like information . Information theory tells us ： The mass and energy emitted by the source , It is transmitted to the sink through the channel , Help the sink eliminate uncertainty , Talent “ Information ”; If the uncertainty increases , It's called “ The noise ”. At least , What people expect “ The truth ”, It also means that it can relieve people of uncertainty , Build something sure . so “ The post truth era ” My view of truth , And what the law says “ The facts ” and “ evidence ” Ideas have more in common . Grasp the truth , To a great extent, it depends on the position and consciousness of the subject . The main station needs to reach a certain height , Don't go too far , It can't be too low . Only too low , To reach full height , Illuminate key details with a big picture view , Find a reliable “ The truth ”.
You might as well refer to a small virtual case ： A multinational shoemaking company sent two people to do market research somewhere in Africa . When the first man went, he reported , There is no hope , People here don't wear shoes at all ！ The second man reported , There is great hope , People here haven't put on their shoes yet ！ These two reports , It can be said that they all belong to “ The age of truth ” Reaction . Because what they see is real and real . The two conclusions are completely opposite , Because their value judgments are different . So in “ The post truth era ” What do you think? ？ It should be to combine the existence of the object with your value orientation . For example, go to Africa today to investigate , Don't just see a lot of people without shoes , And see if anyone is wearing shoes ？ Especially the upper class there , Are there many people wearing shoes ？ that , People who don't wear shoes put on shoes , What are the reasons and conditions ？ I got it , Can provide practical and effective suggestions for opening up the market , Not as desperate as the first investigator , It's not as blindly optimistic as the second investigator . Only in this way can we master what we need 、 complete “ The truth ”.
All in all ,“ After the truth ” No “ No truth ”, It requires to enhance the consciousness of the subject to grasp the truth . Grasping the truth cannot completely eliminate subjective orientation , But we should keep reflection and self-consciousness on the subjective orientation , Focus on understanding the complete facts of objectiveness , Find out from “ Actually ” Lead to “ sollen ” Conditions and paths . such , Maybe it is “ The post truth era ” The required reasonable 、 positive 、 Constructive understanding and attitude .
The end of value arbitrariness and the community of human destiny
Start with the trade war , People focus on one problem ： Why is the US government so hard on China ？ What trump said is the most unreasonable 、 The words that offend the Chinese most , Is to put China 14 Hundred million people have struggled 40 Achievements in , Use one “ steal ” The word is negative . The idea that , Obviously, it is not in line with China's reality , Nor does it conform to what the United States itself preaches “ Universal values ” concept , But it can get the support and response of many people in the United States . What exactly do they think ？ From the history of the United States , This is a long-standing “ American core values ” A concrete implementation of .
What are the core values ？ Check the documents to know , In the original authoritative expression of the American spirit , Has established a belief ： The United States is the best nation in the world , The United States wants to lead the world , Guide humans . This position must not be shaken 、 Violated . You see ：
1776 year 1 Thomas, published in June · Penn's 《 common sense 》 In the said ：“ We have the ability to make the world start over , The birth of a new world is in your hands and mine .” It builds a kind of self-confidence for Americans , Not only think you are the best , And think that their own set should be popular all over the world ;
Same year 8 Signed in January 《 Declaration of independence 》 It also mentions ,“ Americans have a duty to promote these beliefs to the world ”;
Lincoln once described America as “ The earth finally 、 The best hope ”.
…… Every subsequent president's inaugural address , Don't forget to emphasize the American “ special ” and “ great ”.
From a philosophical point of view , Americans think they are great , Is the best , This is not wrong . American history also has such confident capital . But from this “ Just me ”“ Follow me and you will be prosperous , He who goes against me dies ” Inference , Is trapped in “ Value dogmatism ” Misunderstanding . As an arbitrary thinking in Philosophy , Value dogmatism is not new . Since the ancient times , Value dogmatism is consciously maintained and spread by most religious beliefs and mainstream ideology , It has accumulated a profound social foundation and strong cultural influence , Become a kind of ‘ Universal ’ Type 、 The dominant mode of value thinking . So it becomes “ Jungle generation ” The ideological and cultural roots of many conflicts and disasters in the world . The core value of the United States mentioned above , That is, the most distinctive 、 Even some extreme examples .
Go beyond the limitations of value dogmatism , It's not easy . Not only the consciousness of value subjectivity , And we should recognize the equal rights and responsibilities among multiple subjects . This great change in ideas , constitute “ A great change that hasn't happened in a hundred years ” A spiritual feature of , Of course, it also inevitably faces the obstacles of various traditional ideas and their way of thinking . How to treat “ Building a community of shared future for mankind ” problem , It's a focus , Very representative .
Someone asked ： China advocates building a community with a shared future for mankind , Does that community have to have a “ The eldest brother ” Well ？ Does China want to succeed the United States as the world leader ？ Can the United States tolerate ？ Actually ,“ There must be a boss ”, It belongs to “ Jungle generation ” The habit of thinking . A community like the underworld , Of course, there must be “ The eldest brother ” Of . But what we seek is a completely different community of human destiny , That is, a pluralistic equality 、“ Garden of flowers ” An ecological system of symbiosis and common prosperity . Who has ever seen a hundred flowers garden must have “ Eldest flower ”“ Old tree ” Well ？ One does not need to have “ The eldest brother ” That is, the overlord's community of human destiny , Indeed, it has never appeared in history , But modern humans have realized 、 Calling 、 Strive for a reasonable state . Many people still can't understand and imagine such a community , Of course, some people are not willing to build such a community at all . Therefore, public opinion in the world is very chaotic . Some people in the West stay in “ Thucydides trap ” even to the extent that “ On the yellow peril ” In , Spread “ China threat ” On , Provoke the battle for hegemony , It's not hard to imagine ; And some Chinese , Then take the opportunity to advocate “ The king rules the world ” And so on , It's actually singing the same tune on the other hand , Help the devil , It's a little strange .
that , Building a community with a shared future for mankind and revitalizing the Chinese nation , What is the relationship ？ General secretary Xi Jinping said three key words , It's very accurate , It's very important ：
The first key word is “ No absence ”. In the process of new globalization and building a community with a shared future for mankind , China will be present , No longer absent , And don't allow others to push us out .
The second is “ Have a bear ”. China has a large number of people 、 Big country , First, do your own thing well , Is the first responsibility ; meanwhile , Contribute to mankind as much as possible , It is also the responsibility that should be undertaken .
The third is “ Don't fight for hegemony ”. This is even more from Mao Zedong 、 Deng Xiaoping goes to Xi Jinping , The unswerving and consistent position of the Chinese communists that have been clarified .
These three words , It must be treated as a unified whole , Use a new way of thinking to understand . If you still stay at home like in the past “ Based on class struggle ”, foreign “ Centered on the cold war ” State of mind , Certainly not . Some propaganda at home and abroad , Encourage China and the United States to compete for hegemony every day , It's nothing more than provoking right and wrong 、 fan the flames , If it wasn't for ulterior motives , It must be closing your eyes and listening 、 Don't use your brain .
The rights and responsibilities of pluralistic subjects and democracy and rule of law
that , Between multiple subjects and multiple values , How to achieve unity and harmony ？ On domestic and national governance issues , Is to rely on democracy and the rule of law . There are multiple subject rights and responsibilities , And can't replace each other , Only democracy and the rule of law , Can alleviate the value conflict , Create a good social ecology and public opinion atmosphere .
Let's focus on ： Between the rule of law and the thought of illegal rule , The fundamental difference in subject positioning ：
In the thought of illegal governance , There is one “ Quasi deified monistic subject ”. That is, the subject of the rule of law , As a universal 、 Represent all people like God 、 The only subject above all people . He must know everything 、 The universal 、 All out 、 Full effect . Imagine that this subject operates and operates there , Law and reality all legislators and judicial personnel , It's just its tools .
In the thinking of rule of law , It's identification “ Multiple realistic subjects with rights and responsibilities in place ”. That is to admit that the subject of reality is pluralistic , And the boundaries and connections between pluralism , Are tied to the social bond of rights and responsibilities . therefore , Ensure that rights and responsibilities are unified and in place , It is the essence and soul of the rule of law .
The characteristics of rule of law and illegal rule of law , It can be compared with the performance in a typical situation , When there is a dispute or even a lawsuit in the society , Then two kinds of thinking will be treated like this ：
The thought of illegal governance , In fact, it is a kind of thinking of rule of man and moralism . The thinker naturally acts as the referee , So I care about who is right and who is wrong , I have no doubt about my “ Judge the subject ” The origin and boundary of rights and responsibilities , Even ask others to stand in line with their own opinions . It can be seen that the characteristics of illegal governance thinking , Anyone can claim to represent “ justice ”.
And the rule of law thinking , First of all, make it clear ： Who has the right and responsibility to judge right and wrong ？ This is the positioning of the subject of power and responsibility . For example, in a lawsuit , It is the judge who has the final say ; And the task of the court , It's also important to check who's 、 What kind of legitimate rights and responsibilities are violated , What are the consequences , wait , And everything must have objective evidence . Legal thinking attaches great importance to procedural justice , Because the procedure itself often faces the legitimate rights and responsibilities of the parties . Experience proves that , If procedural justice is denied , Don't follow the procedure , Then the ultimate damage , It must be justice itself .
（ The author is a lifelong professor of China University of political science and law ）
source Beijing daily | author Li-te-Schun
edit Huang pinchao
The process editor Liu Weili
author[Beijing daily client],Please bring the original link to reprint, thank you.
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