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76 years ago, in this small town, modern China was surrendered as a conqueror for the first time
2021-08-29 03:37:30 【Beijing daily client】
Zhijiang surrender ceremony site
1945 Year of 9 month 9 Japan 9 when , Thirty nine good days , Nanjing City, which suffered from the war , The flags are on display . Ningci Okamura, commander-in-chief of the Japanese invaders, was in the auditorium of the central army officer school , Sign the surrender . thus , The war of resistance against Japan was finally won .
This signing ceremony , Only twenty minutes . And about Japan's surrender , And various specific matters concerning the surrender of the Chinese theater , It was completed in Zhijiang, Hunan more than ten days ago .
1945 year 8 month 15 Japan , Japan declares unconditional surrender .8 month 21 Japan , Japan's surrender made Takeo Imai go to Zhijiang, Hunan to beg for surrender , Hand over the deployment map of the Japanese troops invading China , Accepted the order containing detailed provisions for Japanese surrender 《 Memorandum No. 1 of Zhongzi 》.
Zhijiang surrender , The snow washed away a hundred years of national humiliation , In modern times, China was surrendered as a conqueror for the first time . zhijiang , This small border town in Western Hunan , It has thus become the first surrender site in China's war zone , Write a glorious page in the history of China's Anti Japanese War .
Change the place of surrender
In a farmland in dongwuliyang village, Yushan County, Shangrao, Jiangxi Province , There is an airport runway less than 100 meters , There are many weeds around , There's sand everywhere .
If no one Guides , Few people know , This used to be a military airport . The local old people still remember , Was built in the 1934 Yushan airport in , Played an important role in the war of resistance against Japan .76 One day a year ago , There is an urgent task here .
1945 year 8 month 15 Japan , The Japanese government announced its unconditional surrender . Chiang Kai Shek called the supreme commander of the Japanese invaders, Ningci Okamura , requirement “ That is to order the Japanese army to stop all military operations ; He also sent representatives to Yushan to accept the order of he Yingqin, commander in chief of the Chinese army .”
The national government attached great importance to the surrender , Urgent telegram Jiangxi Yushan County Government ： Get ready quickly , Renovate the airport .
Hu Guanghong, who participated in the preparatory work for the runway repair project of Yushan Airport , stay 《 Yushan Airport 》 The article recalls ：“ Yushan County government sent thousands of migrant workers , Pull off the big roller , It took three days and three nights , Place the damaged part , Fix it all . And built an auditorium like platform , Made a set of vertical bathtub and seats for the representatives of the Japanese surrender .”
Never in my wildest dreams , The preparatory work has just been completed , The national government suddenly called again to inform , The land of surrender was changed to Hunan Zhijiang Airport .
8 month 17 On the afternoon of Sunday , Chiang Kai Shek received a telegram from Okamura Ningci agreeing to send personnel to Yushan . same day , Chiang Kai Shek hurriedly called Okamura Ningci ,“ Yushan airport cannot be used at present , Changed to Hunan Zhijiang Airport , When to take off , To be notified .”
Why in the midst of intense preparations , In less than three days , Chiang Kai Shek hurriedly changed the place of surrender ？ Obviously ,“ Yushan airport cannot be used at present ”, It's just an excuse .
at that time , For taking Yushan airport as the place of surrender , Some senior figures of the Kuomintang raised objections .
Because Yushan is in the enemy occupied area , Most of the Japanese army still refused to admit defeat , fight stubbonly with one 's back to the wall . Okamura Ningci heard on the radio 《 Final war rescript 》 after , He also called Meijin meichiro, chief of staff of the Japanese base camp, for instructions , It is said that Japan has sent more than one million troops to China , And Lien Chan won in a row , Why do you say so ？ until 8 month 17 Japan , When he telephoned Chiang Kai Shek , Still shouting ：“ If necessary, use force in self-defense ”.
In this way , Surrender at Yushan Airport , There is a certain security risk , And it is not conducive to psychological pressure on the Japanese surrender representatives . Besides , Yushan airport is far from the rear , Communications 、 The traffic is inconvenient , It is not conducive to troop mobility .
therefore , Some senior KMT figures believe that , Yushan airport is not conducive to the smooth progress of the surrender , It is necessary to change the place of surrender . But change it to where , Still unable to agree .
Gu Zhutong, commander of the third theater of the general command of the Chinese army 、 Deputy chief of staff Leng Xin et al , It is suggested that the surrender site be located in Shangrao, Jiangxi Province ; Wei Demai, chief of staff of the Chinese Theater of the Allied forces , It is suggested to push the army headquarters from Kunming to Zhijiang, Hunan , Surrender in Zhijiang .
After several discussions , Chiang Kai Shek adopted weidemai's suggestion , Change the land of surrender from Yushan in Jiangxi to Zhijiang in Hunan .
zhijiang , A small town deep in the mountains of Western Hunan , It is located between the eastern edge of Yunnan Guizhou Plateau and the Western vein of Xuefeng mountains . The water river winds from west to East throughout Zhijiang river , Go to Qiancheng and join Yuanjiang River , Since the county was established in the Western Han Dynasty , Known as the “ The gateway of Yunnan and Guizhou 、 The whole throat ” Known as the , It is the frontier hub leading to the southwest provinces .
1934 year , Militarist Jiang Baili once predicted that China's Anti Japanese war must be a protracted war , He strongly advocated “ After the outbreak of the all-out war between China and Japan , China's wartime base camp should be located in Zhijiang, Western Hunan 、 Hongjiang , There are forests in this area 、 Mineral products , Yuanjiang River flows through it , It's a natural defensive zone .”
Same year , Chiang Kai Shek sent a telegram to He Jian, then chairman of the Hunan provincial government ：“ In order to appease the border of Sichuan, Hunan and Guizhou in the future , Order to build an airport in Zhijiang .” However, due to the weak technical force at that time , The survey of the airport was put on hold for a time . until 1936 year 10 month , Zhijiang county government transferred more than 2000 migrant workers , It's about outside the east gate of the county city 1 km , Based on the original teaching field , Build a 800 A square meter Airport .
1937 year 7 month 7 Japan , The Lugouqiao Incident broke out , balefire rises from all directions , The all-round war of resistance against Japan began . Zhijiang river is the only way to the southwest provinces , It is particularly important to defend the military status of the southwest rear .
Chen Nader, then an adviser to the China Aviation Commission, suggested that Chiang Kai Shek , Fortify Zhijiang River in Western Hunan , Accelerate the expansion and construction of military airports . therefore , Chiang Kai Shek sent an urgent telegram to the Hunan provincial government ：“ Change Zhijiang airport from the present 800 See the square , Expand cultivation to 1200 A large military airport square meters .”
The war is getting tighter , Pressed for time . And the expansion of Zhijiang Airport , a gigantic project , Including the construction of runways 、 parking apron 、 Drainage channel and concealed ammunition depot, etc . Without mechanical equipment , At that time, all work was carried by people , You can imagine the difficulty ！
In order to build the airport as soon as possible , The Hunan provincial government had to adopt the crowd tactics . Mayang 、 Huang County 、 Around Zhijiang River, such as Jing County 11 counties , Nearly 20000 capable workers have gathered in Zhijiang one after another , Quickly put into airport construction .
“ Early in the morning , Everyone had breakfast , Carrying his hoe , Carry your own dustpan , Like ants , From all directions to the construction site .” On 1938 Shen Zhengde, who participated in the construction of the airport in ,“ The construction site has been assigned for a long time , Let's start with the site designated by the foreman . At the beginning, everyone dug together , Full of energy , Talking and laughing .”
Road roller is the most important equipment for airport maintenance , But at that time , China doesn't have such equipment , The workers cut corners , use 5 Tons of big stone roller instead . The commander waved a small red flag , A whistle , Hundreds of workers pull the giant roller together , Rolling back and forth .
“ The runway of the plane , It's all rolled by people pulling stones .” Liu daomin, who once worked as a messenger in the radio station of Zhijiang Airport Terminal , I still remember this scene , At that time , He saw adults go to repair the airport in the street every day .
1937 year 10 Month to 1938 year 10 month ,1.9 Ten thousand migrant workers have invested in the construction of Zhijiang Airport .
The giant stone roller used in the construction of Zhijiang Airport
The men waved silver hoes , Smash boulders , Women and children then smash one of them with a hammer and transport it to the airport . Footsteps 、 A cry 、 The sound of a hammer colliding with a hard rock , Echoed day and night over Zhijiang River . In less than ten months , Zhijiang airport expansion project , Finally in the 1938 year 10 Completion before the end of the month .
Chennault, who personally designed and guided the construction of Zhijiang Airport , I'm very moved . In his memoir, he said ：“ The Chinese people have the spirit of eating bones with ants , Pingshan land preparation , An offer with 5 An airport with a thousand foot runway , To accommodate those planes still manufactured at the bafro factory in Los Angeles .” Chennault sighed ：“ We have more than 100 airports in China , Thousands of Chinese men 、 Women and children are sweating , Painstakingly built with bare hands .”
However , For the hardworking Chinese , There is only one expectation in my heart ： When the airport is completed , Can turn the war around , Win the war of resistance against Japan as soon as possible .
The foreshadowing of the battle in Western Hunan
from 1940 Year begins , Zhijiang airport has been strengthened and expanded for many times , Second only to Kunming air force base “ The second largest allied military airport ”.1944 Beginning of the year , A large number of Chinese and American air forces stationed in Zhijiang Airport . The shark style of the Chinese and American air forces 、 Mustang fighter, etc , Gathered here successively , Up to three or four hundred .
The United States “ Flying Tigers ” General Chennault , Delimit the operational area of the Air Force stationed in Zhi as “ In Central China, especially south of the Yellow River 、 West of pinghan railway ”, Aimed at seizing air supremacy in Central China 、 Annihilate the enemy in air battle . Besides , The Air Force stationed in Zhi was also responsible for the control of the Japanese army in Guangdong and Han 、 Hunan Guangxi railway 、 Highway transportation lines and the Yangtze River 、 Xiangjiang River 、 Bombing and blockade of water transportation lines such as Dongting Lake , Cut off Japanese rear supplies 、 Stop it from moving south and West , Support Chinese ground forces in combat .
From then on , fighter 、 Bombers frequently took off from Zhijiang Airport , Constantly bombing Japanese barracks in China 、 The airport 、 Wharf and logistics transportation line, etc , Paralyze Japan's transportation .
Some members of the fifth brigade of the Sino US Air Force wing are in Zhijiang .
Zhijiang airport has become a major problem for the Japanese Army . In order to recover the decline , The Japanese also bombarded it indiscriminately . Yang Xucheng, once a migrant worker in the second aviation repair factory , stay 《 Repair the airport runway 》 Memories in ：“ Japanese planes bombed Zhijiang Airport , Most of the bombs were thrown on the runway , Dropping a bomb is a big pit . After the enemy plane flew away , We'll try our best to fill the pit with earth , Fill the hole , Tamp , We'll soon be able to get the plane on the runway .”
At the time , The Japanese army lost one after another on the Pacific battlefield , The sea transportation line from Japan to Southeast Asia has also been cut off . By Malaysia 、 Thailand 、 Vietnam's mainland transportation line from China to Busan, North Korea , Become the only lifeline for the Japanese army to insist on fighting on the East Asian continent . But because the Chinese army still controls China's Henan 、 jiangxi 、 hunan 、 Guangxi and other places , This continental transportation line is not connected .
The Japanese army is as strong as a crossbow . In order to get through the mainland transportation line , Destroy the Chinese Air Force Base ,1944 year 4 month , Japan issued “ Battle order one ”, To mobilize 50 Thousands of troops , Launch the Henan Hunan Guangxi campaign . Under the fierce battle , Changsha 、 Hengyang was occupied by the Japanese invaders one after another , Liuzhou 、 Guilin fell successively .
Several important airports of the Chinese and American air forces in central and southern China were damaged by the Japanese army , Zhijiang airport became the only front-line airport at that time . For the Japanese Army , Destroy Zhijiang Airport , It is imperative .
1945 year 1 month 29 Japan , Japan decided to launch “ Xiangxi battle ”, Destroy the strategic bases of the Chinese and American air forces , And occupy Western Hunan in one fell swoop , Bully Chongqing . The Japanese first 20 Corps commander Ichiro Sakai , From Xiangdong 、 The south of Hunan and the north of Guangxi are intensively coordinated 8 Thousands of troops , Points north 、 in 、 Nansan road , March to Western Hunan .
Zhijiang is in danger . Chiang Kai Shek held an emergency military conference in Chongqing , He Yingqin, commander in chief of the Chinese army, was appointed commander in chief , Order to guard Zhijiang Airport . He Yingqin knows well , This battle concerns the overall situation .
He Yingqin commanded Wang Yaowu Department of the Fourth Front Army 、 The third front army Tang Enbo and other departments participated in the war . To be sure , Liao Yaoxiang's new edition “ ace ” The Sixth Army as the general reserve , Together with light tanks 、 Recoilless gun , By C-46 The V-type transport aircraft is transported from Kunming to Zhijiang . This large-scale three-dimensional military supplement , It was the first time .
4 month 9 Japan , The battle of Western Hunan kicked off . The Chinese Army assembled 20 More than one division 、 The total force is close to 20 ten thousand people , Use the north and South 、 Winding more than 700 miles “ Snow peak natural danger ”, Keep fighting against , lure the enemy in deep , Gather and annihilate , an “ Zhijiang defense war ”.
The aircraft of the Air Force stationed in Zhi made every effort to attack , Japanese positions in Xuefengshan campaign area in Western Hunan , Continuous carpet bombing . According to statistics , In the battle , The Chinese and American air forces have sent out fighters 2500 Sorties , bomb 100 More than 10000 pounds , Fire machine gun bullets 80 More than ten thousand hair , Hit the Japanese army hard , Force it to collapse .
1945 year 4 month , Zhijiang defense war , The military personnel of China and the United States are studying and deploying a battle .
Xiao Yansheng, a villager of Qingyan village, Jiangkou Town, Dongkou County, the eastern foot of Xuefeng, was the witness of the war . He still remembers :“ I saw... On the mountain , The planes of the Chinese and American air forces flew to Jiangkou one after another 、 Bombing the Japanese invaders around Qingyan . The Japanese army has no air defense weapons , It was blown up and screamed , The mountains are full of Japanese corpses that have been bombed to death .5 month 8 After the afternoon of the th , The Japanese army collapsed like a tide .”
Two months after the fierce battle , The Japanese army ended in a complete rout . The Chinese Army relies on the advantages of correct strategy and tactics and military strength and equipment , Fight the enemy , Killed the Japanese army 12498 people , injury 23307 people .
The United States 《 The New York times 》 Commented on this and said ： Good news of the victory of Zhijiang battle , It can be regarded as a hint of the turning point of the war against Japan .
That's enough . The battle in Western Hunan defeated the main force of the Japanese army , Not only thwarted its plot to occupy Zhijiang Airport , It also improved the Chinese Army “ The morale of the counterattack ”. zhijiang , It has become a place for the Japanese army to lose their troops .
Just two months later , The news of Japan's unconditional surrender , It spread to the land of China 、 Spread to Zhijiang .
The surrender compound
1945 year 8 month 10 Japan , Chiang Kai Shek sent a telegram to Xiao Yisu, chief of staff of the general command of the Chinese army, to Nanjing for a meeting , Discuss the general counter offensive . The meeting is not over yet , The news that Japan was about to surrender came suddenly , Everyone was overjoyed .
As soon as the meeting is over , Xiao Yisu hurried back to his home in Chongqing . His son Xiao Huilin 、 Xiao Minyuan , I was surprised to see my father who didn't come back once a year , stay 《 My father presided over the surrender of Zhijiang 》 In retrospect ：“ My father was so happy that day , As soon as he entered the door, he said that Japan had surrendered , At that time, my family lived in Kaixuan Road, Chongqing , My mother said happily —— This road is really a triumphant road ！”
The good news soon spread . The following day 《 The central daily news 》 Reported the exciting sleepless night of millions of citizens in Chongqing ：“ The street is a sea of carnival people . Everyone to everyone , Every group of people to every group of people , All say hello ‘ ah ！ ah ！’, Congratulate each other . Everyone's feelings are flooding ！ sublimation ！ When a close friend met, he opened his arms and hugged him as an exception , At least pat each other on the shoulder ;‘ It's time to go home ’！”
The news of victory came suddenly , While the national government was happy , Also a little unprepared . At the time , A large number of Japanese invaders still occupy North China 、 Major cities in East China , Take over the lost land and hold the surrender ceremony , Become a top priority .
Qiu Weida, then lieutenant general of the Fourth Front Army of the Chinese dispatched Army 、 Liu cuoyi, the fourth director of the Chinese army headquarters, is in 《 Memories of the surrender of the Kuomintang 》 I mentioned ：“ For the Kuomintang, the surrender of Japan , All of a sudden , The army headquarters was unprepared . At the meeting, it was only decided that he Yingqin should lead chief of staff Xiao Yisu 、 Leng Xin, deputy chief of staff 、 The fourth director Liu cuoyi 、 Artillery commander Peng Mengji waited until Zhijiang and Qiu Weida, chief of staff of the Fourth Front Army, coordinated the preparatory work , And sent a representative to Zhijiang to receive instructions .”
1945 year 8 month 18 Japan , Chiang Kai Shek called Okamura Ningci , To sue for surrender 8 month 21 Day comes to Zhijiang , Specified number of people 、 Sign alliance aircraft escort 、 Must bring a watch book 、 There are seven items to be observed, such as contact call sign .
same day , Leng Xin, deputy chief of staff of the Chinese army headquarters 、 Cai Wenzhi and others rushed to Zhijiang . They transferred a group of capable men from the Fourth Front Army and the new Sixth Army , form “ Preparatory Office for the signing ceremony of Japan's surrender ”, Arrange the division of labor required for demotion 、 Venue arrangement 、 Traffic vehicles 、 Policing, etc .
Then , Chiang Kai Shek urgently convened an advisory group of the Executive Yuan and representatives of central ministries in Chongqing , Discuss and announce the surrender of Zhijiang , Determine the personnel of the demoted delegation . meanwhile , The Central Military Commission decided to set up the army advance headquarters in Zhijiang .
Due to the demotion of the Japanese envoy, Takeo Imai's rank is major general of the deputy chief of staff , He Yingqin arranged for Xiao Yisu to come forward for a direct meeting . Considering the general equivalence of the ranks of the representatives of the two armies , He Yingqin appointed Major General Chen yingzhuang, director of the Political Department of the new Sixth Army 、 Colonel Chen Zhaokai, chief of staff of the Chinese army headquarters, changed his rank to major , Be responsible for guarding and receiving the Japanese surrender envoy .
All preparatory work , In full swing .
To ensure the safety of the preparations for the ceremony , The preparatory office uses red 、 pink 、 Yellow cloth in three colors , Printed “ Pass for Japanese surrender signing ceremony ”. The pass is strictly in accordance with the regulations , To delegates eligible to attend the ceremony 、 Chinese and foreign journalists and clerks . Besides , Any stationery related to the surrender ceremony 、 Invitation card 、 Brush, etc , It says “ The signing ceremony of Japan's surrender ” The words... .
Wang Zhilian, former deputy commander of the Fourth Front Army of the Kuomintang 、 Wang Dianming is engraved with “ The signing ceremony of Japan's surrender ” The writing brush , Write the memo No. 1 issued by he Yingqin to Okamura Ningci . Wang Zhilian later recalled ：“ We read at night by candlelight in the restaurant , Until late at night 12 When will it be finished , Although it is called hard work , However, the spirit is uplifting , No tiredness .”
The surrender venue is located at Qiliqiao, Qili outside Zhijiang City . There are barracks and several guest houses at Sino US Air Force bases . Due to limited time , Three western style bungalows in the first guest house of the Chinese and American air force , Temporarily changed to “ The surrender compound ”.
“ The surrender compound ” This is not spacious , A steady stream of people attended the surrender ceremony , It gets more and more crowded . A room originally planned for one person , I have to arrange three or four people to live together . at that time , When it's dinner time , Hundreds of tables were packed full . Director Zhao Ruhan of the Fourth Front Army adjutant's office, who is responsible for entertaining commoners , Tired to shout ：“ very ！ very ！”
Hold a surrender ceremony , Need a lot of conference items . At that time, there were not enough tables, chairs and benches in the guest house , Li Zheng, deputy director of the Fourth Front Army in charge of conference affairs , So anxious .
Li Zheng took the clerk to every corner of Zhijiang City , Collect and buy tables, chairs and benches for the venue everywhere , But the collected tables and chairs are uneven , It's too late to make a temporary rush . When Li Zheng is worried , A commander of the Fourth Front Army stationed in Anjiang told him , Anjiang county government and Hunan are in Anjiang 、 The second yarn factory has a lot of good furniture . And then , Li Zheng hurriedly drove some big cars , Moved the better tables, chairs and sofas in the county government and the yarn factory to Zhijiang .
I've been busy for three days and nights , The preparatory office finally the day before the surrender ceremony , Everything is all set. .
1945 year 8 month 20 Japan , He Yingqin and his entourage 、 Consultants, etc 60 More than one , Take... From Chongqing 4 A green transport plane flew to Zhijiang . Commanders of all front armies 、 Journalists from all over the country , They all rushed to Zhijiang on this day .
In the evening , He Yingqin organized several meetings , The procedure for arranging the surrender ceremony 、 procedures 、 Precautions, etc . Xiao Huilin, Xiao Yisu's son, recalled ,“ Since modern China has never accepted the surrender of other countries , There is no precedent for Japan to surrender to other countries , The night before surrender , China has deliberately screened the video materials of Germany's surrender many times . But in addition to respecting the opponent's personal personality , There is no other reference .”
It was agreed that , The reception of representatives from Japan should be reasonable , But be cold . Health represents the daily diet , Not only the time , And the horn shall prevail , Serious , Fang does not lose the demeanor of conquering the country . meanwhile , All the slogans 、 All notes shall be printed with “V” word , Show victory .
The glory of victory
1945 year 8 month 21 Japan , Zhijiang City wakes up in joy .
Chongqing at that time 《 Ta Kung Pao 》 Reporter Gu Jianping , stay 《 Zhijiang sightseeing 》 It says ：“ Zhijiang river near the water , Lively and prosperous , It is said to be unprecedented . There is a red couplet at the gate of the county , Write ‘ Celebrate the unprecedented victory in 5000 years ’‘ Open a billion eternal peace ’, Words are as big as a bucket . Shops and restaurants are decorated , Every household raises its flag , Crackling firecrackers , I haven't had enough fun yet . We toured the streets for a week , In addition to seeing congested cars , It's a red and green conjunction , Many of them use ‘ Japan surrendered , There is peace in the world ’ Two simple and clear ready-made vernaculars .”
This day , Men, women and children in Zhijiang City , In the morning , They poured into the airport in the east of the city from different directions . People's faces are full of smiles , Filled with the joy of victory . Someone said happily ：“ This is an unprecedented feat in Chinese history , A powerful country surrendered to us because of its defeat , For this event , Who would miss the chance , Who doesn't want to see .”
Soon , Zhijiang airport was packed , There were crowds around . People stood outside the warning circle drawn by white lime , Eagerly awaited . In the warning circle , More than a hundred planes 、 Hundreds of jeeps, etc , Neatly parked on the airport runway , There are sentries everywhere .
1945 year 8 month 21 Japan , The Japanese Ambassador left the airport in a jeep with a white flag , Go to the designated residence .
In the morning 11 Time , Japanese landing aircraft with a red cloth sign at the tail , stay 3 frame “ Wild horses ” With a fighter jet , Land slowly at Zhijiang Airport . In an instant , Thousands of Chinese and American officers and soldiers 、 Reporters swarmed in , People outside the cordon began to stir .
Li Ying, a reporter who participated in the interview at that time, wrote ：“ We rushed to the airport , I saw a sea of people , full of people , It was so easy to squeeze into the interview booth , Just sat down for less than ten minutes , I heard the rumble of the machine from far to near , Takeo Imai's plane appeared over Zhijiang , Go around the field three times , One is to pay tribute to the Chinese army and people , First, ask for instructions from the ground ： Whether they are allowed to land . The on-the-spot commander ordered the attendant to send a signal from the ground to allow landing , The Japanese plane landed slowly at Zhijiang Airport .”
Before the Japanese plane landed , Takeo Imai overlooks Zhijiang airport from the air . He suddenly understood the reason why the Japanese army lost their troops here ,“ Looking down at Zhijiang airport from above the plane , There is only one runway in one direction , Not well paved , But there are hundreds of planes scattered and hidden everywhere …… Compared with the current situation of the rudimentary Japanese air force , I have to marvel at the strength of the enemy air force .”
But in order to take care of the last dignity of the Japanese , Takeo Imai went to Zhijiang for surrender , This is Okamura Ningci, the model is “MC” Your special plane . During the Anti-Japanese War , It was once majestic . At the time , The paint has peeled off , Full of bullet marks . Even Takeo Imai himself felt ,“ The more you look, the more you feel shabby , It's really a last resort .”
The hatch opened slowly , Takeo Imai wears a military uniform , Wear a military knife , Head down and get out of the plane , Ask if you can get off the plane . After Chen yingzhuang agreed , Go ahead and check the list of the crew . Several gendarmes , At the same time, he went forward to check the five suitcases carried by the crew .
And then , Chen yingzhuang led Takeo Imai and his entourage , Take four jeeps with white flags , After a week around the airport , Drive to the Qiliqiao venue on the Bank of the water river .
This scene , Make the people present excited . Someone raised his camera to take pictures , Someone pulled down the red cloth at the tail of the Japanese landing plane as a souvenir , Others shouted “ Bring down Japanese imperialism ”“ Severely punish Japanese war criminals ” Slogans stop the motorcade from moving forward .
Takeo Imai 、 Yoshio Hashima 、 Maekawa Guoxiong and his party , Sitting in a jeep , With a sad face , Quite nervous . They are like prisoners crossing the street , Slowly through the sea of people .
From the Lugouqiao Incident to the establishment of the Wang puppet government , Takeo Imai was a senior military spy during the Japanese invasion of China , Once domineering on this land , as if nobody on earth could beat him . He never thought of , I will “ Handcuffed to beg for surrender ”. He later wrote in his memoirs that ：“ The defeated us , Like a dark wall that cuts off the future , Desperate loneliness and restlessness cannot be eliminated .”
I think that the Japanese army once sent envoys to the British army in Singapore and the US Army in the Philippines ,“ Force them to only say ‘ yes ’ perhaps ‘ No ’”, Takeo Imai is worried . This day , He is ready for defeat and humiliation ,“ On some occasion , There will be life-threatening, but also a last resort .”
The final contest
Zhijiang surrender , attract worldwide attention . This day , Zhijiang City is decorated everywhere , The surrender venue has also been carefully arranged .
The main entrance of the venue , There is a archway with pine and cypress branches on the left and right . The entrance of the left archway is decorated with “ axiom ” Two words , In the middle is a symbol of victory “V” word , It's pierced with “ The God of peace ”; The same is true of the right archway , The entrance is decorated with “ justice ” Two words . The open space in front of the venue , High and high 、 Sue 、 beautiful 、 The flags of the four British countries .
Enter the venue , In a wooden bungalow with black structure , It is divided into East and west areas with the wooden fence as the boundary , There is a portrait of Sun Yat Sen on the wall in the Eastern District . There are several long tables in front of the portrait , Covered with a snow-white tablecloth . The people who participated in the report at that time 《 Ningyuan daily 》 Reporter Yi junzuo described , These tables look “ It seems to be the judge's desk ”. In the west side, there is only one long table , It's a reserved press box , There is a big clock hanging on the wall .
Before the surrender meeting , The dignitaries present 、 rank-and-file soldiers 、 Chinese and foreign journalists are in a state of excitement . According to Yi junzuo's description , One end of the room ,“ The jubilant Chinese and American officers congratulated each other , The most prominent was the loud laughter of General Xiao Yisu, chief of staff of the Chinese army headquarters, who presided over the meeting, and general Butler, the representative of the United States .” The press box at the other end , Almost occupied by typewriters brought by foreign journalists , The sound of the typewriter even overshadowed the noise of people .
《 China Morning Post 》 Reporter Yan Guiyu was one of the reporters on the scene in Hunan newspaper circles , He noticed that Tom ember 、 Zhang Fakui 、 Luhan 、 Wang Yaowu 、 Du Yuming 、 Wu Qiwei 、 Liao Yaoxiang 、 Zheng Dongguo 、 Zhang Xuezhong and other senior Kuomintang generals , All attended the meeting as nonvoting delegates . However, due to the limited area of the venue , Dozens of Chinese and foreign journalists , They had to be crowded out of the corridor and the venue to watch .
15 when 20 branch , Takeo Imai and other four Japanese envoys took off their hats and walked into the venue . They went to the empty seat , In full view of the public , Facing Xiao Yisu, chief of staff of the Chinese army headquarters, who is sitting in the position of Chairman 、 Leng Xin, deputy chief of staff 、 Brigadier general Butler, chief of staff of the US military in the Chinese theater, and Colonel Wang Wu, interpreter , A deep bow . Xiao Yisu and others did not return the salute , Just one word ：“ Please have a seat !”
Takeo Imai sat down , I didn't take off the saber at my waist . Before the talks begin , He begged the Chinese side ： The Japanese always regard military knives as life , Remove the saber , It's like killing your life . therefore , Xiao Yisu chartered Takeo Imai to keep the sabre , He is very grateful for this .
At the beginning of the meeting , Xiao Yisu first introduced his left and right representatives from China and the United States , Then say in a commanding tone ：“ I was entrusted by commander in chief he Yingqin to receive you , Please identify yourself , Hand over your ID card ！”
After the translation of Japanese and English , Takeo Imai introduced himself and his entourage , Whispered ：“ I was sent by Ningci Okamura, commander in chief of the Japanese garrison in China, to pay a visit to the head of the Chinese Theater . My task is to contact your officials before the armistice agreement is signed , Have no right to decide 、 And have no right to sign any document .”
Takeo Imai only said “ armistice ” No words “ surrender ” Statement of the , This has aroused the dissatisfaction of the Chinese representatives . Xiao Yisu angrily scolded ：“ The emperor of Japan has issued an edict to accept 《 Potsdam proclamation 》 Implement unconditional surrender , Order the Japanese to stop fighting , Hand over your weapons . Your official is the surrender representative sent by general Ningci Okamura , Come to accept the order of the Chinese Theater on the surrender of the Japanese invaders . You use... In your oral report ‘ armistice ’ Instead of ‘ surrender ’ The word" , It's not right , It is hereby corrected .”
therefore , Takeo Imai only said that , On the one hand, they are unwilling to show weakness when submitting relevant documents . As early as three days ago , China has telegraphed Okamura Ningci , It's the Chinese mainland （ Except for the three northeastern provinces ）、 North latitude of Taiwan, China and Vietnam 16 The chain of command of all Japanese troops in the area north of Du 、 Distribution of forces 、 The airport 、 ships 、 The magazine 、 All tables, books and drawings of the location and current situation of the mined area shall be submitted to .
But Takeo Imai said , Only the deployment map of Japanese troops in the Chinese Theater , There are no lists , There is no military deployment of China, Taiwan and Vietnam on the map , The reason is that the Japanese troops stationed in these two areas are not under the jurisdiction of Yoshiko Okamura .
meanwhile , Japanese translator chennan Kimura stopped translating only here . The Japanese interpreter in China immediately stood up and said ：“ There are still two sentences of major general Imai's words that haven't been translated ,‘ Three eastern provinces 、 The general situation of Vietnam and Taiwan can be known ’.”
In constant competition , The talks lasted more than an hour . The American cameraman in charge of shooting the scene captured a detail ： After the Japanese staff officer Yoshio Hashima sat down , sit on pins and needles , I've been so nervous that I keep sweating . And Takeo Imai , Beads of sweat came up on his head .
One of Japan's diplomatic envoys, shimajima Fangxiong , After sitting down, keep wiping sweat .
At the surrender ceremony of Zhijiang , The Japanese side presented the deployment map of the Japanese army invading China .
Japanese envoy Takeo Imai is in 《 Subject to forensics 》 Seal .
17 Time , Chinese and American representatives use Chinese 、 Japan 、 There are three languages in English , Announced the request that Takeo Imai hand over to Ningci Okamura 《 Memorandum No. 1 of Zhongzi 》. This memorandum stipulates that , The Japanese army, navy and air force in the Chinese Theater should accept the order , Surrender to all the surrender officers designated by the Chinese side .
Takeo Imai took the memo , It is required to explain the content , But Xiao Yisu “ You don't have to ” Four words blocked back . Xiao Yisu ordered him to tell Okamura Ningci , China will send Leng Xin to Nanjing to set up a command post , So that the Japanese surrender can proceed smoothly ; China will airlift troops to Nanjing in the shortest time 、 Shanghai 、 Peiping and other places , I hope Japan will cooperate and make preparations . The surrender talks ended .
Until now , Takeo Imai realized , The fact of Japan's defeat and surrender is irreversible . But to his gratitude ,“ All staff officers expressed their deep understanding for the Japanese side , Always treat each other with a Bushido attitude , Rather than treat the defeated enemy , It's more like treating friends . Especially major general Niu Xianming , His words and deeds even show that we should be vigilant not to cause the defeated envoy to commit suicide .”
The place of signature is changed to Nanjing
The surrender signing ceremony originally scheduled in Zhijiang , A sudden change , The place of signature is changed to Nanjing .
After the talks with Takeo Imai , He Yingqin received a call from Wei Demai . Weidemai said , The signing of surrender is a matter of world attention , The place of signature should not be in Zhijiang , It should be changed to Nanjing .
For this suggestion , He Yingqin disagreed . He thinks that , Nanjing was still under Japanese control , It's inconvenient to sign for surrender in Nanjing , It's better to stay in Zhijiang .
8 month 21 Japan , He Yingqin called Chiang Kai Shek ：“ Chairman of the Chongqing Municipal Committee Jiang ： According to general McClure's telegram ： According to a telegram from general weidemai ： Okamura Ningci should sign in Nanjing , But recently I decided to go to Zhijiang in Chongqing , And everything is ready , Ask the staff for their opinions on this change . I thought that if junzuo was appointed, he must be demoted in Nanjing , Duty bound to , But before signing , Our new Sixth Army can't start airlift yet , If you go to , Under the influence of the enemy , Everything must be difficult , The research results , It seems that it is better to still be in Zhijiang . how . Beg to show compliance . He Yingqin .”
The next day , Chiang Kai Shek sent an urgent telegram to he Yingqin from Chongqing ：“ You can discuss various items with Japanese representatives in Zhijiang , The place of signature must be changed to Nanjing . Zhongzheng .”
The demoted signature was changed to Nanjing , Many problems come one after another . In cities that the Chinese army does not really control , If only formal surrender ceremony is held , There is virtually no army to occupy it , So who will disarm the Japanese Army ？ After surrender , How to take over and defend Nanjing ？
After weighing the advantages and disadvantages , Xiao Yisu made this proposal ：“ We should wait until our force can really control Nanjing , Hold... There ‘ The signing ceremony of the surrender of the Chinese theater ’, And immediately disarm the Japanese army in the area . All kinds of reception work can also be carried out together with the armed assistance of the National Army . otherwise , Will lose the guarantee .”
This proposal , It was soon recognized by Chiang Kai Shek . The signing ceremony for the surrender of brigadier general Chiang Kai Shek was held in Nanjing , Call he Yingqin ：“ Zhijiang he commander in chief Xun Jian ： One 、 The US military headquarters received a call from General MacArthur saying ： The Japanese government officially surrendered , On 8 month 31 Can only be signed on . The Chinese Theater accepted the formal surrender of Ningci Okamura , To be signed by the Tokyo President , And the army airlifted Nanjing 、 Shanghai has started after , Before signing in Nanjing . Expected date of surrender , About the 9 month 4 Day or 5 Japan .”
8 month 23 The morning of , He Yingqin meets Takeo Imai , Japan's surrender was officially signed in Nanjing . On the afternoon of the , Takeo Imai and his party , Fly from Zhijiang to Nanjing .
And then , He Yingqin deals with the follow-up matters of surrender in Zhijiang , While preparing for the signing ceremony in Nanjing . But we have to airlift the troops to Nanjing 、 Shanghai 、 Peiping and other places , Just a few days is not enough . therefore , He telegraphed Chiang Kai Shek ：
“ I received a telegram from junzuo , The Japanese army was instructed to surrender in Nanjing , The date is about September 2 or 5 , It must be held after a large number of air troops arrive , The new Sixth Army and the 94 army airlifted , It is scheduled to start on September 1 . On the 30th, the whole army was ready , But as of this winter , The air force has not yet begun . For the above reasons , Signature date , Please confirm September 9 , Would you please ？ Beg to show , Please turn to the Sixth Army and the 94th army for air transportation , Start as soon as possible , The army has plenty of time to deploy in Beijing and Shanghai .”
With the consent of Chiang Kai Shek , He Yingqin therefore had ample time to deploy troops . He deployed all matters concerning the surrender of the Chinese Theater in Zhijiang , until 9 month 8 The morning of 9 when , Just flew from Zhijiang to Nanjing .
9 month 9 Japan 9 when , Thirty nine good days ,“ Signing ceremony of Japanese surrender in the Chinese war zone ” It was held in the auditorium of the former Central Military Academy in Nanjing , Declare the complete failure of Japanese militarism in China .
One sunset after surrender, Zhijiang . As the first surrender place in China's war zone , Zhijiang not only witnessed the surrender of modern China as a conqueror for the first time , It is also famous .
After surrender , Zhijiang people from all walks of life held a victory congratulation meeting . He Yingqin delivered a speech at the conference ：“ Zhijiang, a secluded town in the mountains , because 8 month 21 The Japanese army slowed down to negotiate a landing , Suddenly it has become famous all over the world , Leave an indelible glorious page in history .”
To commemorate this glorious moment ,1946 year , Hunan provincial government sent design committee member Chen Yuying and Zhijiang county magistrate Yang Huayu , Draw up 《 Design draft of Zhijiang surrender city 》. The draft of the surrender city includes the construction of a surrender Memorial 、 Anti Japanese War Memorial 、 Monument to the victory of the Anti Japanese War, etc , It means a lot ,“ Ji's war achievements , Long national ambition , And to educate future generations , will always bear in mind .”
But the project of building a demobilized city is huge , A lot of money is needed . at that time , The national government allocated only 285 Ten thousand French dollars , But a drop in the bucket . County Magistrate Yang Huayu made an oath ：“ Even if we dig bricks, we should build an arc de Triomphe ”, To commemorate the martyrs who died in the war of resistance against Japan .
After overcoming all kinds of difficulties ,1947 year 2 month , The surrender Memorial square was finally built at Qiliqiao on the Bank of the ShuiHe River . The memorial hall has four columns and three arches , Passing height 8.5 rice , Upper brick column , Cement surface , Inscribed with inscriptions by important military and political officials of the Kuomintang .
It looks far away , The surrender memorial hall is like a capital “ blood ” word , It symbolizes the Chinese people's 14 years of Anti Japanese War ,3500 More than ten thousand compatriots shed their blood for this , In exchange for victory and peace . During the Cultural Revolution , The surrender memorial hall was used by the red guards as “ Four old ” The destruction .
1982 year , Japanese history textbooks will “ Invading China ” The description of is changed to “ Enter China ”; Takeo Fukuda, then prime minister, took the form of “ Prime Minister ” name , Go to Yasukuni shrine to offer sacrifices and pay homage …… Japan's actions , Aroused the anger of the Chinese people .
Deng Xiaoping instructed ：“ Japan built the monument of aggression , We're going to build a monument against aggression ”. According to this instruction, the cultural relics department of Hunan Provincial Department of culture , Decided to commemorate the victory of the Anti Japanese War 40 Before the anniversary , Rehabilitation of Zhijiang surrender Memorial Hall .
About the repair plan , Zhijiang county government proposed “ The principle of not changing the original state of cultural relics must be observed , Respect history , Take into account the overall situation of the reunification of the motherland ,‘ Surrender Memorial ’ To restore to the original , Keep the original scale 、 Original inscription title , But it is stronger in quality than before , Try to fix it a little .”
“ Try to fix it a little ” It's not easy . The former Zhijiang County Cultural Relics Management Office, Changjiang Baiyong, participated in the restoration project , According to his description , The inscription of the memorial hall was changed from cement plastic words to stone slabs , The adoption of old records is called “ Purple robe jade belt ” Mingshan stone . Quarry site , At a distance from the city 12 Kilometers of Mingshan hillside , Manual lifting is required 4 Kilometers to load . Fortunately, there are skilled local workers , Although there are many difficulties , But they all overcame .
The people of Zhijiang are deeply impressed by the restoration of the surrender Memorial Hall , I can't forget . Someone provided a clue , A large monument demolished earlier , Was carried to repair the pump table . The staff rushed to the pump station , I saw a stone tablet laid obliquely on the edge of the water tunnel . When I lifted it out, I found , It is embedded on the back of the surrender Memorial square 《 Zhijiang surrender Memorial Hall 》 inscriptions on a tablet , Immediately ask someone to carry it back to the construction site ; Someone else found a memorial in the local area “ Shine through the ages ” The completed monument , Take the initiative to return to the former site of the surrender venue .
1985 year 8 month , The rehabilitation and surrender memorial hall is finally completed . In the same year , The former site of the surrender venue has also been restored , Everything is displayed as it is . Jiang Boyong is 《 A brief account of the rehabilitation of the surrender Memorial Hall 》 wrote ：“ Anjiang yarn factory donated for free ‘ The signing ceremony of Japan's surrender ’ Engraved nine drawer table 1 Zhang , Sofa 3 Zhang , Office chair 11 Zhang , These have been identified as national level one 、 Category III Historical Relics .”
Now , Zhijiang has built on the former site of the surrender Memorial Hall and the surrender venue , Build a peace park 、 Memorial Hall of the victory and surrender of the Chinese people in the war of resistance against Japan 、 Hunan Anti Japanese War Memorial Hall 、 The Flying Tigers Memorial . This makes tourists who recall history , follow . According to the statistics of the office of the memorial hall of the victory of the Chinese people's war of resistance against Japan , since this year on , More than... Tourists have been received 90 Thousands of people .
source Beijing Daily Chronicle | The reporter Zhang Xiaoying
edit ： Yang Meng Yang Lijuan
The process editor Tai Shaofeng
author[Beijing daily client],Please bring the original link to reprint, thank you.
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